Last updated on: 1/12/2023 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.

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2.Speaking of Research, "US Statistics," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
3.Animal Welfare Act,, last amended June 18, 2008
4.The Jane Goodall Institute of Canada, "Conservation & Threats," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
5.Science Museum (UK), "Thalidomide," (accessed Oct. 17, 2013)
6.US Department of Defense, "Animal Care and Use Programs for Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
7.National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), "A Brief History of Animals in Space," (accessed Oct. 17, 2013)
8.Chicago Tribune, "Nasa Loading More Than 2,000 Animals into Shuttle,", Apr. 15, 1998
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12.Speaking of Research, "Alternatives?," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
13.American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, "Animal Research FAQ," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
14.Associated Press, "Texas Research Chimps Face Retirement, Relocation,", July 22, 2013
15.Kara Rogers, "Scientific Alternatives to Animal Testing: A Progress Report,", Sep. 17, 2007
16.Jonathan Smith, "Can Biotechnology Reduce Animal Testing in Medicine?,”, Apr. 8, 2019
17.Understanding Animal Research, "Myths and Facts," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
18.David Wright, Cole Kazdin, and Lauren Effron, "'Zoobiquity': 7 Diseases Animals Share with Humans,", June 12, 2012
19.Speaking of Research, "Animal Research Is Not 'Animal Testing,'", Jan. 17, 2013
20.US National Institutes of Health (NIH), "Laws Related to the Protection of Human Subjects: World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
21.California Veterinary Medical Association, "Animal Research: How It Benefits Both Humans and Animals," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
22.Peter Beaumont, "Australia's Koala Crisis: Gene Sequencing Provides Hope against Killer Diseases,", Apr. 20, 2013
23.American Veterinary Medical Association, "Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
24.Christian E. Newcomer, VMD, email to, Oct. 11, 2013
25.Americans for Medical Progress, "Animal Research FAQs: The Top 10 Questions," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
26.US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), "Annual Report Animal Usage by Fiscal Year: 2010,", July 27, 2011
27.Rutgers University Laboratory Animal Services, "II. Federal, State And University Laws, Regulations, Guidelines And Policies," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
28.Charlotte Hu, "Of Mice and Model Organisms,”, July 31, 2019
29.George Dvorsky, "Do These Startling Longevity Studies Mean Your Lifespan Could Double?,", Apr. 30, 2013
30.Science Daily, "Naked Mole Rat's Secret to Staying Cancer Free,", July 31, 2013
31.Nature Genetics, "Editorial: Animal Research and the Search for Understanding,", 2006
32.Americans for Medical Progress, "Touring an Animal Research Facility,", Oct. 21, 2008
33.Tibor R. Machan, "Animals Do Not Have Rights,", Apr. 5, 2012
34.A. Barton Hinkle, "Do Animals Have Rights?,", Sep. 23, 2011
35.Daniel Cressey, "Animal Research: Battle Scars,", Feb. 23, 2011
36.American Physiological Society, "Animal Research," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
37.National Association for Biomedical Research, "Mission Statement," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
38.American Heart Association, "Public Policy Agenda 2010-14," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
39.Society of Toxicology, "Animals in Research Public Policy Statement,", Mar. 1999
40.American Cancer Society, "Did You Know...," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
41.Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, "Nonprofits: Endorse the Campaign," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
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43.Bloomberg News, "China Animal Testing Complicates L'Oreal’s Expansion,", Aug. 22, 2013
44.SC Johnson, "SC Johnson Point of View on Animal Testing,", Oct. 23, 2019
45."Genesis 1:26," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
46.British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), "Animal Ethics," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
47.Humane Society International, "About Animal Testing," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
48.Scientific American, "Do Cosmetic Companies Still Test on Live Animals?," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
49.Rodrigo Netto Costa et al., "A Reassessment of the in Vitro Total Protein Content Determination (TPC) with SIRC and 3T3 Cells for the Evaluation of the Ocular Irritation Potential of Shampoos: Comparison with the in Vivo Draize Rabbit Test," Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Nov.-Dec. 2011
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51.Axonn News Agency, "Greiner Bio-One Launches Artificial Skin to Replace Animal Testing,", July 15, 2013
52.New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS), "Biomedical Research," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
53.Humane Society International, "As Home Office Statistics Show UK Animal Experiments At Shocking 4.11Million, HSI Calls on Government to Increase Spend on Non-Animal Replacement Techniques,", July 16, 2013
54.Jeffrey M. Perkel, "Life Science Technologies: Animal-Free Toxicology: Sometimes, in Vitro is Better," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
55.Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), "Vioxx Tragedy Spotlights Failure of Animal Research,", Mar. 2005
56.NBC News, "Report: Vioxx Linked to Thousands of Deaths,", Oct. 6, 2004
57.Understanding Animal Research, "Nine Out of Ten Statistics Are Taken Out of Context,", Jan. 23, 2013
58.Aysha Akhtar, MD, MPH, "Want to Improve Medical Research? Cut Out the Animals!,", July 11, 2013
59.Junhee Seok et al., "Genomic Responses in Mouse Models Poorly Mimic Human Inflammatory Diseases," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), Feb. 11, 2013
60.Marcel Leist and Thomas Hartung, "Inflammatory Findings on Species Extrapolations: Humans Are Definitely No 70-kg Mice," Archives of Toxicology, 2013
61.Humane Society International, "Costs of Animal and Non-Animal Testing," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
62.Kathleen Conlee, "Animal Testing Not Effective,", July 12, 2013
63.US National Institutes of Health, "NIH Budget," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
64.Carol Kilkenny et al., "Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals," PLOS One, 2009
65.Humane Society of the United States, "Questions and Answers about Biomedical Research,", Sep. 16, 2013
66.Peter Singer, Animal Liberation, 2009
67.Richard Dawkins, "But Can They Suffer,", June 29, 2011
68.Humane Society of the United States, "Undercover Investigation Reveals Cruelty to Chimps at Research Lab,", Mar. 4, 2009
69.Marjie Lundstrom, "UC Davis Researcher Suspended over Animal Care Allegations," Sacramento Bee website, Oct. 7, 2012
70."Proverbs 12:10," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
71.US National Academy of Sciences, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition, 2011
72.National Association for Biomedical Research, "Species in Research," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
73.US Food and Drug Administration, "Small Business Assistance: Frequently Asked Questions on Drug Development and Investigational New Drug Applications," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
74.Benjamin Adams and Jean Larson, "Legislative History of the Animal Welfare Act," (accessed Oct. 17, 2013)
75.Daniel Engber, "Where's Pepper?,", June 1, 2009
76.Frank Newport and Igor Himelfarb, "In U.S., Record-High Say Gay, Lesbian Relations Morally OK,", May 20, 2013
77.Joy Wilke and Lydia Saad, "Older Americans' Moral Attitudes Changing,", June 3, 2013
78.Lake Research Partners, "Ending Cosmetics Testing on Animals in the United States: Findings from a Nationwide Survey of 802 Registered Voters, Including 206 Via Cell Phone,", 2013
79.Richard R. Sharp, "Ethical Issues in the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
80.Anita Guerrini, Experimenting with Humans and Animals: From Galen to Animal Rights, 2003
81.US National Institutes of Health, "Greek Medicine: Galen,", Feb. 7, 2012
82.Rachel Hajar, MD, "Animal Testing and Medicine," Heart Views, Jan.-Mar. 2011
83.Anita Guerrini, "The Rhetorics of Animal Rights," Applied Ethics in Animal Research: Philosophy, Regulation, and Laboratory Applications, Ed. John P. Gluck et al., 2002
84.British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), "William Harvey (1578 - 1657)," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
85.Domenico Ribatti, "William Harvey and the Discovery of the Circulation of the Blood," Journal of Angiogenesis Research, Sep. 21, 2009
86.Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex, 1927
87.British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, "Records of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
88.Sir Rickman John Godlee, Lord Lister, 1918
89.National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), "The Challenge of Animal Research," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
90.Darian M. Ibrahim, "Reduce, Refine, Replace: The Failure of the Three R's and the Future of Animal Experimentation," Social Science Research Network website, Mar. 4, 2006
91.Joanne Zurlo, Deborah Rudacille, and Alan M. Goldberg, "The Three R's: The Way Forward," Environmental Health Perspectives, Aug. 1996
92.David Whitehouse, "First Dog in Space Died within Hours,", Oct. 28, 2002
93.Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), "Military Avoids Timeline to Modernize Combat Trauma Training," (accessed Oct. 16, 2013)
94.Ernesto Londoño, "Military Is Required to Justify Using Animals in Medic Training after Pressure from Activists,", Feb. 24, 2013
95.Mike M. Ahlers, "Coast Guard Reexamines Use of Live Goats as Battle 'Patients,'", May 3, 2013
96.Daniel Engber, "Me and My Monkey,", June 5, 2009
97.Sheryl Gay Stolberg, "Debate over Whether to Defend Animal Tests,", July 23, 2002
98.James Kanter, "E.U. Bans Cosmetics with Animal-Tested Ingredients,", Mar. 11, 2013
99.Alicia Graef, "Victory! India Bans Animal Testing for Cosmetics,", July 2, 2013
100.James Gorman, "U.S. to Begin Retiring Most Research Chimps,", June 26, 2013
101.Nobel Media, "The Discovery of Insulin," (accessed Oct. 16, 2013)
102.US Department of Agriculture, "Annual Report Animal Usage by Fiscal Year,”, Jan. 7, 2020
103.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Ahimsa," (accessed Oct. 16, 2013)
104.National Academy of Sciences, "Report Calls for New Directions, Innovative Approaches in Testing Chemicals for Toxicity to Humans,", June 12, 2007
105.Aysha Akhtar, MD, MPH, Animals and Public Health: Why Treating Animals Better Is Critical to Human Welfare, 2012
106.Arthur Allen, "Of Mice or Men: The Problems with Animal Testing,", June 1, 2006
107.Aysha Akhtar, MD, MPH, email to, Oct. 14, 2013
108.Karl S. Kruszelnicki, "Mouse with Human Ear,", June 2, 2006
109.Ray Greek, MD, et al., "The History and Implications of Testing Thalidomide on Animals," Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law, Oct. 3, 2011
110.John J. Pippin, MD and Kristie Sullivan, MPH, "Dangerous Medicine: Examples of Animal-Based 'Safety' Tests Gone Wrong," Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine website (accessed Oct. 23, 2013)
111.Pro-Test, "Frequently Asked Questions," (accessed Oct. 23, 2013)
112.World Health Organization, "Poliomyelitis,", Apr. 2013
113.Pamela Bass, email to, Oct. 21, 2013
114.Julie Naughton, "China's FDA Adjusts Mandatory Animal Testing," Women's Wear Daily website, Nov. 7, 2013
115.Tom Holder, "Animal Research Is an Ethical and Vital Tool to Fight Disease,", Jan. 14, 2013
116.Mike Wall, "US Was First to Send Monkey to Space in 1948,", Jan. 28, 2013
117.National Institutes of Health, "NIH Will No Longer Support Biomedical Research on Chimpanzees,", Nov. 18, 2015
118.Global Polio Eradication Initiative, "Polio This Week," (accessed Sep. 22, 2017)
119.Julie Steenhuysen, "As Pressure for Coronavirus Vaccine Mounts, Scientists Debate Risks of Accelerated Testing,”, Mar. 11, 2020
120.Carly Funk and Lee Rainie, "Public and Scientists' Views on Science and Society,", Jan. 29, 2015
121.US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), "Annual Report Animal Usage by Fiscal Year: 2016,", June 27, 2017
122.United States Department of Agriculture, In Re: SNBL USA, LTD: AWA Docket 16-0187, Sep. 26, 2016
123.Alice Klein, "Chlamydia Vaccine for Koalas Slows Spread of Deadly Disease,", Apr. 21, 2017
124.John Ericson, "Breakthroughs Might Mean the End of Animal Testing,", Mar. 18, 2014
125.Jeff Flake, "Wastebook: Porkemon Go,", Jan. 2017
126.People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), "Tell Congress: Cut Funding for Cruel Experiments on Animals," (accessed Oct. 18, 2017)
127.Emily Trunnell, "The University of Pittsburgh Is Using Taxpayer Dollars to Conduct Cruel and Unnecessary Animal Experiments,", Sep. 7, 2017
128.Stacy L. Pritt and Robert E. Hammer, "The Interplay of Ethics, Animal Welfare, and IACUC Oversight on the Reproducibility of Animal Studies," Comparative Medicine, Apr. 2017
129.New Internationalist, "Is Animal Testing Necessary to Advance Medical Research?", June 1, 2011
130.Humane Research Australia (HRA), "Medical Research,", Jan. 2006
131.Mihir Zaveri, Mariel Padilla, and Jaclyn Peiser, "E.P.A. Says It Will Drastically Reduce Animal Testing,", Sep. 10, 2019
132.Frontiers, "Algorithm for Large-scale Brain Simulations,” science, Mar. 5, 2018
133.Bruce Einhorn, "A Virus Cure Depends on Rare Lab Mice, But There Aren’t Enough,”, Mar. 11, 2020
134.Mihir Zaveri, Mariel Padilla, and Jaclyn Peiser, "E.P.A. Says It Will Drastically Reduce Animal Testing,”, Sep. 10, 2019
135.The Humane Society of the United States, "Animals Used in Biomedical Research FAQ,” humane (accessed Mar. 17, 2020)
136.Perfect365, Inc., "New Survey from Perfect365 Reveals 36% of Women Prefer to Purchase Cruelty-Free Beauty,", Mar. 29, 2018
137.Market Research Future, "Cruelty-Free Cosmetics Market Research Report - Global Forecast till 2024,”, Mar. 2020
138.European Commission, “Ban on Animal Testing,” (accessed Mar. 17, 2020)
139.Nicole Pallotta, "California Bans the Sale of Most Cosmetics Tested on Animals,”, Oct. 15, 2018
140.Elizabeth Siegel, "Why Beauty Brands Still Test Their Products on Animals,", Oct. 20, 2017
141.Rachel L. Roper; and Kristina E. Rehm, "SARS Vaccines: Where Are We?,”, 2009
142.People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, "Coronavirus Vaccine: NIH Isn’t Waiting for Pointless Animal Tests,”, Mar. 16, 2020
143.Michelle Roberts, "Coronavirus: US Volunteers Test First Vaccine,”, Mar. 17, 2020
144.Nicoletta Lanese, "Researchers Fast-Track Coronavirus Vaccine by Skipping Key Animal Testing First,”, Mar. 13, 2020
145.Eric Boodman, "Researchers Rush to Test Coronavirus Vaccine in People without Knowing How Well It Works in Animals,”, Mar. 11, 2020
146.Rachel Bucchino, "New FDA Policy Allows Lab Animals to Be Adopted after Experiments,”, Feb. 7, 2020
147.Moderna, "Moderna’s Work on a Potential Vaccine Against COVID-19,” (accessed Mar. 18, 2020)
148.Sui-Lee Wee, "Future Vaccines Depend on Test Subjects in Short Supply: Monkeys,", Feb. 23, 2021
149.Tom Branna, "China To End Animal Testing for Imported 'Ordinary' Cosmetics,", Mar. 5, 2021
150.Humane Society International, "Mexico Becomes First Country in North America to Outlaw Animal Testing for Cosmetics,", Sep. 2, 2021
151.Joe Hernandez, "The FDA No Longer Requires All Drugs to Be Tested on Animals before Human Trials,", Jan. 12, 2023