Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
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  2. Speaking of Research, "US Statistics," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

  3. Animal Welfare Act,, last amended June 18, 2008

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  5. Science Museum (UK), "Thalidomide," (accessed Oct. 17, 2013)

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  8. Chicago Tribune, "Nasa Loading More Than 2,000 Animals into Shuttle,", Apr. 15, 1998

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  10., "Diseases & Research," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

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  12. Speaking of Research, "Alternatives?," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

  13. American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, "Animal Research FAQ," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

  14. Associated Press, "Texas Research Chimps Face Retirement, Relocation,", July 22, 2013

  15. Kara Rogers, "Scientific Alternatives to Animal Testing: A Progress Report,", Sep. 17, 2007

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  17. Understanding Animal Research, "Myths and Facts," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

  18. David Wright, Cole Kazdin, and Lauren Effron, "'Zoobiquity': 7 Diseases Animals Share with Humans,", June 12, 2012

  19. Speaking of Research, "Animal Research Is Not 'Animal Testing,'", Jan. 17, 2013

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  21. California Veterinary Medical Association, "Animal Research: How It Benefits Both Humans and Animals," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

  22. Peter Beaumont, "Australia's Koala Crisis: Gene Sequencing Provides Hope against Killer Diseases,", Apr. 20, 2013

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  24. Christian E. Newcomer, VMD, email to, Oct. 11, 2013

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  26. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), "Annual Report Animal Usage by Fiscal Year: 2010,", July 27, 2011

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  32. Americans for Medical Progress, "Touring an Animal Research Facility,", Oct. 21, 2008

  33. Tibor R. Machan, "Animals Do Not Have Rights,", Apr. 5, 2012

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  35. Daniel Cressey, "Animal Research: Battle Scars,", Feb. 23, 2011

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  40. American Cancer Society, "Did You Know...," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

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  47. Humane Society International, "About Animal Testing," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

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  49. Rodrigo Netto Costa et al., "A Reassessment of the in Vitro Total Protein Content Determination (TPC) with SIRC and 3T3 Cells for the Evaluation of the Ocular Irritation Potential of Shampoos: Comparison with the in Vivo Draize Rabbit Test," Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Nov.-Dec. 2011

  50. Geoff Watts, "Alternatives to Animal Experimentation," BMJ, Jan. 27, 2007

  51. Axonn News Agency, "Greiner Bio-One Launches Artificial Skin to Replace Animal Testing,", July 15, 2013

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  53. Humane Society International, "As Home Office Statistics Show UK Animal Experiments At Shocking 4.11Million, HSI Calls on Government to Increase Spend on Non-Animal Replacement Techniques,", July 16, 2013

  54. Jeffrey M. Perkel, "Life Science Technologies: Animal-Free Toxicology: Sometimes, in Vitro is Better," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

  55. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), "Vioxx Tragedy Spotlights Failure of Animal Research,", Mar. 2005

  56. NBC News, "Report: Vioxx Linked to Thousands of Deaths,", Oct. 6, 2004

  57. Understanding Animal Research, "Nine Out of Ten Statistics Are Taken Out of Context,", Jan. 23, 2013

  58. Aysha Akhtar, MD, MPH, "Want to Improve Medical Research? Cut Out the Animals!,", July 11, 2013

  59. Junhee Seok et al., "Genomic Responses in Mouse Models Poorly Mimic Human Inflammatory Diseases," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), Feb. 11, 2013

  60. Marcel Leist and Thomas Hartung, "Inflammatory Findings on Species Extrapolations: Humans Are Definitely No 70-kg Mice," Archives of Toxicology, 2013

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  62. Kathleen Conlee, "Animal Testing Not Effective,", July 12, 2013

  63. US National Institutes of Health, "NIH Budget," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

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  65. Humane Society of the United States, "Questions and Answers about Biomedical Research,", Sep. 16, 2013

  66. Peter Singer, Animal Liberation, 2009

  67. Richard Dawkins, "But Can They Suffer,", June 29, 2011

  68. Humane Society of the United States, "Undercover Investigation Reveals Cruelty to Chimps at Research Lab,", Mar. 4, 2009

  69. Marjie Lundstrom, "UC Davis Researcher Suspended over Animal Care Allegations," Sacramento Bee website, Oct. 7, 2012

  70. King James Bible, "Proverbs 12:10," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

  71. US National Academy of Sciences, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition, 2011

  72. National Association for Biomedical Research, "Species in Research," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

  73. US Food and Drug Administration, "Small Business Assistance: Frequently Asked Questions on Drug Development and Investigational New Drug Applications," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

  74. Benjamin Adams and Jean Larson, "Legislative History of the Animal Welfare Act," (accessed Oct. 17, 2013)

  75. Daniel Engber, "Where's Pepper?,", June 1, 2009

  76. Frank Newport and Igor Himelfarb, "In U.S., Record-High Say Gay, Lesbian Relations Morally OK,", May 20, 2013

  77. Joy Wilke and Lydia Saad, "Older Americans' Moral Attitudes Changing,", June 3, 2013

  78. Lake Research Partners, "Ending Cosmetics Testing on Animals in the United States: Findings from a Nationwide Survey of 802 Registered Voters, Including 206 Via Cell Phone,", 2013

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  82. Rachel Hajar, MD, "Animal Testing and Medicine," Heart Views, Jan.-Mar. 2011

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  85. Domenico Ribatti, "William Harvey and the Discovery of the Circulation of the Blood," Journal of Angiogenesis Research, Sep. 21, 2009

  86. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex, 1927

  87. British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, "Records of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

  88. Sir Rickman John Godlee, Lord Lister, 1918

  89. National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), "The Challenge of Animal Research," (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)

  90. Darian M. Ibrahim, "Reduce, Refine, Replace: The Failure of the Three R's and the Future of Animal Experimentation," Social Science Research Network website, Mar. 4, 2006

  91. Joanne Zurlo, Deborah Rudacille, and Alan M. Goldberg, "The Three R's: The Way Forward," Environmental Health Perspectives, Aug. 1996

  92. David Whitehouse, "First Dog in Space Died within Hours,", Oct. 28, 2002

  93. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), "Military Avoids Timeline to Modernize Combat Trauma Training," (accessed Oct. 16, 2013)

  94. Ernesto Londoño, "Military Is Required to Justify Using Animals in Medic Training after Pressure from Activists,", Feb. 24, 2013

  95. Mike M. Ahlers, "Coast Guard Reexamines Use of Live Goats as Battle 'Patients,'", May 3, 2013

  96. Daniel Engber, "Me and My Monkey,", June 5, 2009

  97. Sheryl Gay Stolberg, "Debate over Whether to Defend Animal Tests,", July 23, 2002

  98. James Kanter, "E.U. Bans Cosmetics with Animal-Tested Ingredients,", Mar. 11, 2013

  99. Alicia Graef, "Victory! India Bans Animal Testing for Cosmetics,", July 2, 2013

  100. James Gorman, "U.S. to Begin Retiring Most Research Chimps,", June 26, 2013

  101. Nobel Media, "The Discovery of Insulin," (accessed Oct. 16, 2013)

  102. Michael A. Kamrin and John H. Montgomery, Agrochemical and Pesticide Desk Reference, 2000

  103. Encyclopædia Britannica, "Ahimsa," (accessed Oct. 16, 2013)

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  108. Karl S. Kruszelnicki, "Mouse with Human Ear,", June 2, 2006

  109. Ray Greek, MD, et al., "The History and Implications of Testing Thalidomide on Animals," Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law, Oct. 3, 2011

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  116. Mike Wall, "US Was First to Send Monkey to Space in 1948,", Jan. 28, 2013

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  119. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), "Hepatitis C Kills More Americans Than Any Other Infectious Disease,", May 4, 2016

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  121. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), "Annual Report Animal Usage by Fiscal Year: 2016,", June 27, 2017

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  123. Alice Klein, "Chlamydia Vaccine for Koalas Slows Spread of Deadly Disease,", Apr. 21, 2017

  124. John Ericson, "Breakthroughs Might Mean the End of Animal Testing,", Mar. 18, 2014

  125. Jeff Flake, "Wastebook: Porkemon Go,", Jan. 2017

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  127. Emily Trunnell, "The University of Pittsburgh Is Using Taxpayer Dollars to Conduct Cruel and Unnecessary Animal Experiments,", Sep. 7, 2017

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  129. New Internationalist, "Is Animal Testing Necessary to Advance Medical Research?", June 1, 2011

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Marc Bekoff, Animals Matter: A Biologist Explains Why We Should Treat Animals with Compassion and Respect, 2007

P. Michael Conn and James V. Parker, The Animal Research War, 2008

C. Ray Greek, Sacred Cows and Golden Geese: The Human Cost of Experiments on Animals, 2002

Rom Harré, Pavlov's Dogs and Schrödinger's Cat: Scenes from the Living Laboratory, 2009

Deborah Rudacille, The Scalpel and the Butterfly: The War Between Animal Research and Animal Protection, 2000

Ed. Peter Singer, In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave, 2006

Paul Waldau, Animal Rights: What Everyone Needs to Know, 2011