Last updated on: 9/16/2019 | Author:

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):

  1. The Hastings Center, “Fact Sheet: Animals Used in Research in the U.S.,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  2. Speaking of Research, “US Statistics,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  3. Animal Welfare Act,, last amended June 18, 2008
  4. The Jane Goodall Institute of Canada, “Conservation & Threats,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  5. Science Museum (UK), “Thalidomide,” (accessed Oct. 17, 2013)
  6. US Department of Defense, “Animal Care and Use Programs for Fiscal Years 2006 and 2007,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), “A Brief History of Animals in Space,” (accessed Oct. 17, 2013)
  8. Chicago Tribune, “Nasa Loading More Than 2,000 Animals into Shuttle,”, Apr. 15, 1998
  9. California Biomedical Research Association, “CBRA Fact Sheet: Why Are Animals Necessary in Biomedical Research?,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  10., “Diseases & Research,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  11. Elizabeth Fisher, “Why We Should Accept Animal Testing,”, July 17, 2013
  12. Speaking of Research, “Alternatives?,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  13. American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, “Animal Research FAQ,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  14. Associated Press, “Texas Research Chimps Face Retirement, Relocation,”, July 22, 2013
  15. Kara Rogers, “Scientific Alternatives to Animal Testing: A Progress Report,”, Sep. 17, 2007
  16. Jonathan Smith, “Can Biotechnology Reduce Animal Testing in Medicine?,”, Apr. 8, 2019
  17. Understanding Animal Research, “Myths and Facts,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  18. David Wright, Cole Kazdin, and Lauren Effron, “‘Zoobiquity’: 7 Diseases Animals Share with Humans,”, June 12, 2012
  19. Speaking of Research, “Animal Research Is Not ‘Animal Testing,'”, Jan. 17, 2013
  20. US National Institutes of Health (NIH), “Laws Related to the Protection of Human Subjects: World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  21. California Veterinary Medical Association, “Animal Research: How It Benefits Both Humans and Animals,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  22. Peter Beaumont, “Australia’s Koala Crisis: Gene Sequencing Provides Hope against Killer Diseases,”, Apr. 20, 2013
  23. American Veterinary Medical Association, “Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  24. Christian E. Newcomer, VMD, email to, Oct. 11, 2013
  25. Americans for Medical Progress, “Animal Research FAQs: The Top 10 Questions,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  26. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), “Annual Report Animal Usage by Fiscal Year: 2010,”, July 27, 2011
  27. Rutgers University Laboratory Animal Services, “II. Federal, State And University Laws, Regulations, Guidelines And Policies,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  28. Charlotte Hu, “Of Mice and Model Organisms,”, July 31, 2019
  29. George Dvorsky, “Do These Startling Longevity Studies Mean Your Lifespan Could Double?,”, Apr. 30, 2013
  30. Science Daily, “Naked Mole Rat’s Secret to Staying Cancer Free,”, July 31, 2013
  31. Nature Genetics, “Editorial: Animal Research and the Search for Understanding,”, 2006
  32. Americans for Medical Progress, “Touring an Animal Research Facility,”, Oct. 21, 2008
  33. Tibor R. Machan, “Animals Do Not Have Rights,”, Apr. 5, 2012
  34. A. Barton Hinkle, “Do Animals Have Rights?,”, Sep. 23, 2011
  35. Daniel Cressey, “Animal Research: Battle Scars,”, Feb. 23, 2011
  36. Amerian Physiological Society, “Animal Research,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  37. National Association for Biomedical Research, “Mission Statement,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  38. American Heart Association, “Public Policy Agenda 2010-14,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  39. Society of Toxicology, “Animals in Research Public Policy Statement,”, Mar. 1999
  40. American Cancer Society, “Did You Know…,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  41. Campaign for Safe Cosmetics, “Nonprofits: Endorse the Campaign,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  42. US Food and Drug Administration, “Animal Testing and Cosmetics,”, Apr. 5, 2006
  43. Bloomberg News, “China Animal Testing Complicates L’Oreal’s Expansion,”, Aug. 22, 2013
  44. SC Johnson, “SC Johnson Point of View on Animal Testing,”, Oct. 23, 2019
  45. King James Bible, “Genesis 1:26,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  46. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), “Animal Ethics,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  47. Humane Society International, “About Animal Testing,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  48. Scientific American, “Do Cosmetic Companies Still Test on Live Animals?,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  49. Rodrigo Netto Costa et al., “A Reassessment of the in Vitro Total Protein Content Determination (TPC) with SIRC and 3T3 Cells for the Evaluation of the Ocular Irritation Potential of Shampoos: Comparison with the in Vivo Draize Rabbit Test,” Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, Nov.-Dec. 2011
  50. Geoff Watts, “Alternatives to Animal Experimentation,” BMJ, Jan. 27, 2007
  51. Axonn News Agency, “Greiner Bio-One Launches Artificial Skin to Replace Animal Testing,”, July 15, 2013
  52. New England Anti-Vivisection Society (NEAVS), “Biomedical Research,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  53. Humane Society International, “As Home Office Statistics Show UK Animal Experiments At Shocking 4.11Million, HSI Calls on Government to Increase Spend on Non-Animal Replacement Techniques,”, July 16, 2013
  54. Jeffrey M. Perkel, “Life Science Technologies: Animal-Free Toxicology: Sometimes, in Vitro is Better,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  55. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), “Vioxx Tragedy Spotlights Failure of Animal Research,”, Mar. 2005
  56. NBC News, “Report: Vioxx Linked to Thousands of Deaths,”, Oct. 6, 2004
  57. Understanding Animal Research, “Nine Out of Ten Statistics Are Taken Out of Context,”, Jan. 23, 2013
  58. Aysha Akhtar, MD, MPH, “Want to Improve Medical Research? Cut Out the Animals!,”, July 11, 2013
  59. Junhee Seok et al., “Genomic Responses in Mouse Models Poorly Mimic Human Inflammatory Diseases,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), Feb. 11, 2013
  60. Marcel Leist and Thomas Hartung, “Inflammatory Findings on Species Extrapolations: Humans Are Definitely No 70-kg Mice,” Archives of Toxicology, 2013
  61. Humane Society International, “Costs of Animal and Non-Animal Testing,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  62. Kathleen Conlee, “Animal Testing Not Effective,”, July 12, 2013
  63. US National Institutes of Health, “NIH Budget,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  64. Carol Kilkenny et al., “Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals,” PLOS One, 2009
  65. Humane Society of the United States, “Questions and Answers about Biomedical Research,”, Sep. 16, 2013
  66. Peter Singer, Animal Liberation, 2009
  67. Richard Dawkins, “But Can They Suffer,”, June 29, 2011
  68. Humane Society of the United States, “Undercover Investigation Reveals Cruelty to Chimps at Research Lab,”, Mar. 4, 2009
  69. Marjie Lundstrom, “UC Davis Researcher Suspended over Animal Care Allegations,” Sacramento Bee website, Oct. 7, 2012
  70. King James Bible, “Proverbs 12:10,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  71. US National Academy of Sciences, Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: Eighth Edition, 2011
  72. National Association for Biomedical Research, “Species in Research,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  73. US Food and Drug Administration, “Small Business Assistance: Frequently Asked Questions on Drug Development and Investigational New Drug Applications,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  74. Benjamin Adams and Jean Larson, “Legislative History of the Animal Welfare Act,” (accessed Oct. 17, 2013)
  75. Daniel Engber, “Where’s Pepper?,”, June 1, 2009
  76. Frank Newport and Igor Himelfarb, “In U.S., Record-High Say Gay, Lesbian Relations Morally OK,”, May 20, 2013
  77. Joy Wilke and Lydia Saad, “Older Americans’ Moral Attitudes Changing,”, June 3, 2013
  78. Lake Research Partners, “Ending Cosmetics Testing on Animals in the United States: Findings from a Nationwide Survey of 802 Registered Voters, Including 206 Via Cell Phone,”, 2013
  79. Richard R. Sharp, PhD, “Ethical Issues in the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  80. Anita Guerrini, Experimenting with Humans and Animals: From Galen to Animal Rights, 2003
  81. US National Institutes of Health, “Greek Medicine: Galen,”, Feb. 7, 2012
  82. Rachel Hajar, MD, “Animal Testing and Medicine,” Heart Views, Jan.-Mar. 2011
  83. Anita Guerrini, “The Rhetorics of Animal Rights,” Applied Ethics in Animal Research: Philosophy, Regulation, and Laboratory Applications, Ed. John P. Gluck et al., 2002
  84. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), “William Harvey (1578 – 1657),” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  85. Domenico Ribatti, “William Harvey and the Discovery of the Circulation of the Blood,” Journal of Angiogenesis Research, Sep. 21, 2009
  86. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex, 1927
  87. British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, “Records of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  88. Sir Rickman John Godlee, Lord Lister, 1918
  89. National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), “The Challenge of Animal Research,” (accessed Oct. 15, 2013)
  90. Darian M. Ibrahim, “Reduce, Refine, Replace: The Failure of the Three R’s and the Future of Animal Experimentation,” Social Science Research Network website, Mar. 4, 2006
  91. Joanne Zurlo, Deborah Rudacille, and Alan M. Goldberg, “The Three R’s: The Way Forward,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Aug. 1996
  92. David Whitehouse, “First Dog in Space Died within Hours,”, Oct. 28, 2002
  93. Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM), “Military Avoids Timeline to Modernize Combat Trauma Training,” (accessed Oct. 16, 2013)
  94. Ernesto Londoño, “Military Is Required to Justify Using Animals in Medic Training after Pressure from Activists,”, Feb. 24, 2013
  95. Mike M. Ahlers, “Coast Guard Reexamines Use of Live Goats as Battle ‘Patients,'”, May 3, 2013
  96. Daniel Engber, “Me and My Monkey,”, June 5, 2009
  97. Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “Debate over Whether to Defend Animal Tests,”, July 23, 2002
  98. James Kanter, “E.U. Bans Cosmetics with Animal-Tested Ingredients,”, Mar. 11, 2013
  99. Alicia Graef, “Victory! India Bans Animal Testing for Cosmetics,”, July 2, 2013
  100. James Gorman, “U.S. to Begin Retiring Most Research Chimps,”, June 26, 2013
  101. Nobel Media, “The Discovery of Insulin,” (accessed Oct. 16, 2013)
  102. US Department of Agriculture, “Annual Report Animal Usage by Fiscal Year,”, Jan. 7, 2020
  103. Encyclopædia Britannica, “Ahimsa,” (accessed Oct. 16, 2013)
  104. National Academy of Sciences, “Report Calls for New Directions, Innovative Approaches in Testing Chemicals for Toxicity to Humans,”, June 12, 2007
  105. Aysha Akhtar, MD, MPH, Animals and Public Health: Why Treating Animals Better Is Critical to Human Welfare, 2012
  106. Arthur Allen, “Of Mice or Men: The Problems with Animal Testing,”, June 1, 2006
  107. Aysha Akhtar, MD, MPH, email to, Oct. 14, 2013
  108. Karl S. Kruszelnicki, “Mouse with Human Ear,”, June 2, 2006
  109. Ray Greek, MD, et al., “The History and Implications of Testing Thalidomide on Animals,” Journal of Philosophy, Science & Law, Oct. 3, 2011
  110. John J. Pippin, MD and Kristie Sullivan, MPH, “Dangerous Medicine: Examples of Animal-Based ‘Safety’ Tests Gone Wrong,” Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine website (accessed Oct. 23, 2013)
  111. Pro-Test, “Frequently Asked Questions,” (accessed Oct. 23, 2013)
  112. World Health Organization, “Poliomyelitis,”, Apr. 2013
  113. Pamela Bass, email to, Oct. 21, 2013
  114. Julie Naughton, “China’s FDA Adjusts Mandatory Animal Testing,” Women’s Wear Daily website, Nov. 7, 2013
  115. Tom Holder, “Animal Research Is an Ethical and Vital Tool to Fight Disease,”, Jan. 14, 2013
  116. Mike Wall, “US Was First to Send Monkey to Space in 1948,”, Jan. 28, 2013
  117. National Institutes of Health, “NIH Will No Longer Support Biomedical Research on Chimpanzees,”, Nov. 18, 2015
  118. Global Polio Eradication Initiative, “Polio This Week,” (accessed Sep. 22, 2017)
  119. Julie Steenhuysen, “As Pressure for Coronavirus Vaccine Mounts, Scientists Debate Risks of Accelerated Testing,”, Mar. 11, 2020
  120. Carly Funk and Lee Rainie, “Public and Scientists’ Views on Science and Society,”, Jan. 29, 2015
  121. US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), “Annual Report Animal Usage by Fiscal Year: 2016,”, June 27, 2017
  122. United States Department of Agriculture, In Re: SNBL USA, LTD: AWA Docket 16-0187, Sep. 26, 2016
  123. Alice Klein, “Chlamydia Vaccine for Koalas Slows Spread of Deadly Disease,”, Apr. 21, 2017
  124. John Ericson, “Breakthroughs Might Mean the End of Animal Testing,”, Mar. 18, 2014
  125. Jeff Flake, “Wastebook: Porkemon Go,”, Jan. 2017
  126. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), “Tell Congress: Cut Funding for Cruel Experiments on Animals,” (accessed Oct. 18, 2017)
  127. Emily Trunnell, “The University of Pittsburgh Is Using Taxpayer Dollars to Conduct Cruel and Unnecessary Animal Experiments,”, Sep. 7, 2017
  128. Stacy L. Pritt and Robert E. Hammer, “The Interplay of Ethics, Animal Welfare, and IACUC Oversight on the Reproducibility of Animal Studies,” Comparative Medicine, Apr. 2017
  129. New Internationalist, “Is Animal Testing Necessary to Advance Medical Research?”, June 1, 2011
  130. Humane Research Australia (HRA), “Medical Research,”, Jan. 2006
  131. Mihir Zaveri, Mariel Padilla, and Jaclyn Peiser, “E.P.A. Says It Will Drastically Reduce Animal Testing,”, Sep. 10, 2019
  132. Frontiers, “Algorithm for Large-scale Brain Simulations,” science, Mar. 5, 2018
  133. Bruce Einhorn, “A Virus Cure Depends on Rare Lab Mice, But There Aren’t Enough,”, Mar. 11, 2020
  134. Mihir Zaveri, Mariel Padilla, and Jaclyn Peiser, “E.P.A. Says It Will Drastically Reduce Animal Testing,”, Sep. 10, 2019
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  138. European Commission, “Ban on Animal Testing,” (accessed Mar. 17, 2020)
  139. Nicole Pallotta, “California Bans the Sale of Most Cosmetics Tested on Animals,”, Oct. 15, 2018
  140. Elizabeth Siegel, “Why Beauty Brands Still Test Their Products on Animals,”, Oct. 20, 2017
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  142. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, “Coronavirus Vaccine: NIH Isn’t Waiting for Pointless Animal Tests,”, Mar. 16, 2020
  143. Michelle Roberts, “Coronavirus: US Volunteers Test First Vaccine,”, Mar. 17, 2020
  144. Nicoletta Lanese, “Researchers Fast-Track Coronavirus Vaccine by Skipping Key Animal Testing First,”, Mar. 13, 2020
  145. Eric Boodman, “Researchers Rush to Test Coronavirus Vaccine in People without Knowing How Well It Works in Animals,”, Mar. 11, 2020
  146. Rachel Bucchino, “New FDA Policy Allows Lab Animals to Be Adopted after Experiments,”, Feb. 7, 2020
  147. Moderna, “Moderna’s Work on a Potential Vaccine Against COVID-19,” (accessed Mar. 18, 2020)


Marc Bekoff, Animals Matter: A Biologist Explains Why We Should Treat Animals with Compassion and Respect, 2007

P. Michael Conn and James V. Parker, The Animal Research War, 2008

C. Ray Greek, Sacred Cows and Golden Geese: The Human Cost of Experiments on Animals, 2002

Rom Harré, Pavlov’s Dogs and Schrödinger’s Cat: Scenes from the Living Laboratory, 2009

Deborah Rudacille, The Scalpel and the Butterfly: The War Between Animal Research and Animal Protection, 2000

Ed. Peter Singer, In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave, 2006

Paul Waldau, Animal Rights: What Everyone Needs to Know, 2011